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Solar System Exploration
Earth's Moon: Facts & Figures
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Discovered By
Known by the Ancients
Date of Discovery
Orbit Size Around Earth (semi-major axis)
Metric: 384,400 km
English: 238,855 miles
Scientific Notation: 3.84400 x 105 km (0.00257 A.U.)
By Comparison: 0.00257 x Earth's Distance from the Sun
Average Distance from Earth
Metric: 384,400 km
English: 238,855 miles
Scientific Notation: 3.844 x 105 km (2.570 x 10-3 A.U.)
By Comparison: 0.00257 x Earth's distance from the Sun
Perigee (closest)
Metric: 363,104 km
English: 225,623 miles
Scientific Notation: 3.631 x 105 km (2.427 x 10-3 A.U.)
By Comparison: 0.00243 x Earth's distance from the Sun
Apogee (farthest)
Metric: 405,696 km
English: 252,088 miles
Scientific Notation: 4.057 x 105 km (2.712 x 10-3 A.U.)
By Comparison: 0.00271 x Earth's distance from the Sun
Orbit Circumference
Metric: 2,413,402.16 km
English: 1,499,618.58 miles
Scientific Notation: 2.413 x 106 km
Average Orbit Velocity
Metric: 3,680.5 km/h
English: 2,287.0 mph
Scientific Notation: 1,022 m/s
By Comparison: 0.034 x Earth
Orbit Eccentricity
By Comparison: 3.315 x Earth
Orbit Inclination
5.16 degrees
By Comparison: Oscillates roughly 0.15 degrees in 173 days.
Equatorial Inclination to Orbit
6.68 degrees
Mean Radius
Metric: 1737.5 km
English: 1079.6 miles
Scientific Notation: 1.738 x 103 km
By Comparison: 0.2727 x Earth
Equatorial Circumference
Metric: 10,917.0 km
English: 6,783.5 miles
Scientific Notation: 1.0917 x 104 km
Metric: 21,971,669,064 km3
Scientific Notation: 2.197 x 1010 km3
By Comparison: 0.020 x Earth
Metric: 73,476,730,924,573,500,000,000 kg
Scientific Notation: 7.3477 x 1022 kg
By Comparison: 0.0123 x Earth
Metric: 3.344 g/cm3
By Comparison: 0.607 x Earth
Surface Area
Metric: 37,936,694.79 km2
English: 14,647,439.75 square miles
Scientific Notation: 3.793669 x 107 km2
By Comparison: 0.074 x Earth
Surface Gravity
Metric: 1.624 m/s2
English: 5.328 ft/s2
Scientific Notation: 1.624 m/s2
By Comparison: 0.166 x Earth
Escape Velocity
Metric: 8,552 km/h
English: 5,314 mph
Scientific Notation: 2,376 m/s
By Comparison: 0.212 x Earth
Sidereal Rotation Period (Length of Day)
27.322 Earth days
655.73 hours
By Comparison: Synchronous with Orbital Period
Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature
Metric: -233/123 °C
English: -387/253 °F
Scientific Notation: 40/396 K

Additional Information:

Because of the gravitational pull of the sun, the extreme ranges of the Moon from the Earth are from 356,400 km to 406,700 km.
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Last Updated: 20 Dec 2013