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Discovered By
Known by the Ancients
Date of Discovery
Orbit Size Around Sun (semi-major axis)
Metric: 149,598,262 km
English: 92,956,050 miles
Scientific Notation: 1.4959826 x 108 km (1.000 A.U.)
Perihelion (closest)
Metric: 147,098,291 km
English: 91,402,640 miles
Scientific Notation: 1.47098 x 108 km (9.833 x 10-1 A.U.)
Aphelion (farthest)
Metric: 152,098,233 km
English: 94,509,460 miles
Scientific Notation: 1.52098 x 108 km (1.017 A.U.)
Sidereal Orbit Period (Length of Year)
1.0000174 Earth years
365.26 Earth days
Orbit Circumference
Metric: 939,887,974 km
English: 584,019,311 miles
Scientific Notation: 9.399 x 108 km
Average Orbit Velocity
Metric: 107,218 km/h
English: 66,622 mph
Scientific Notation: 2.9783 x 104 m/s
Orbit Eccentricity
Orbit Inclination
0.00005 degrees
Equatorial Inclination to Orbit
23.4393 degrees
Mean Radius
Metric: 6,371.00 km
English: 3,958.8 miles
Scientific Notation: 6.3710 x 103 km
Equatorial Circumference
Metric: 40,030.2 km
English: 24,873.6 miles
Scientific Notation: 4.00302 x 104 km
Metric: 1,083,206,916,846 km3
English: 259,875,159,532 mi3
Scientific Notation: 1.08321 x 1012 km3
Metric: 5,972,190,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg
Scientific Notation: 5.9722 x 1024 kg
Metric: 5.513 g/cm3
Surface Area
Metric: 510,064,472 km2
English: 196,936,994 square miles
Scientific Notation: 5.1006 x 108 km2
Surface Gravity
Metric: 9.80665 m/s2
English: 32.041 ft/s2
Escape Velocity
Metric: 40,284 km/h
English: 25,031 mph
Scientific Notation: 1.119 x 104 m/s
Sidereal Rotation Period (Length of Day)
0.99726968 Earth days
23.934 hours
Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature
Metric: -88/58 (min/max) °C
English: -126/136 (min/max) °F
Scientific Notation: 185/331 (min/max) K
Atmospheric Constituents
Nitrogen, Oxygen
Scientific Notation: N2, O2
By Comparison: N2 is 80% of Earth's air and is a crucial element in DNA.
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Last Updated: 28 Apr 2014