Mneme was discovered on Feb. 9, 2003 by Scott S. Sheppard and Brett Joseph Gladman at the Mauna Kea Observatory in Hawaii.
Mneme is a member of the Ananke group, a family of Jovian satellites which have similar orbits and are therefore thought to have a common origin. The group probably began as an asteroid that was captured by Jupiter's gravity and then suffered a collision, which broke off a number of pieces. The largest remaining chunk was named "Ananke," and the smaller pieces became the other 15 moons in the Ananke group.
All of the Ananke moons are retrograde, which means that they orbit Jupiter in the opposite direction from the planet's rotation. Their orbits are also eccentric (elliptical rather than circular) and rather highly inclined with respect to Jupiter's equatorial plane. All of these characteristics support the idea that the Ananke satellites began as a captured asteroid, rather than forming as part of the original Jupiter system. None of the Ananke members is massive enough to pull itself into a sphere, so they are probably all irregularly shaped.
Mneme has a mean radius of about 0.6 miles (one kilometer), assuming an albedo of 0.04. At a mean distance of about 13 million miles (21 million kilometers) from Jupiter, it takes about 620 Earth days to complete one orbit.
How Mneme Got its Name
Originally called S/2003 J21, Mneme was named for one of the Muses, who were daughters of Zeus, the Greek equivalent of the Roman god Jupiter. Mneme means memory.
A name ending in "e" was chosen in accordance with the International Astronomical Union's policy for designating outer moons with retrograde orbits