Goals: SMART-1 was the European Space Agency's first mission to the Moon. It was a technology test of a new solar-electric propulsion, communication techniques and miniaturized science instruments. SMART stands for Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology.
Accomplishments: The technology tests were a success. SMART-1 also made the first comprehensive inventory of key chemical elements in the lunar surface. It investigated the theory that the Moon was formed following the violent collision of a smaller planet with Earth, four and a half thousand million years ago. The spacecraft was deliberately crashed on the Moon in September 2006.