Ranger 1 was intended to test new technologies that would take humankind to the Moon and other planets. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

What was Ranger 1?

The Ranger series was the first U.S. attempt to obtain close-up images of the Moon's surface. The probes were designed to fly to Moon and send images back until impact on the surface. Ranger 1 was meant to test technologies for future missions. It burned up in Earth’s atmosphere after a rocket malfunction.

Nation United States of America (USA)
Objective(s) Highly Elliptical Earth Orbit
Spacecraft P-32
Spacecraft Mass 675 pounds (306.18 kilograms)
Mission Design and Management NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory
Launch Vehicle Atlas Agena B (Atlas Agena B no. 1 / Atlas D no. 111 / Agena B no. 6001)
Launch Date and Time Aug. 23,1961 / 10:04 UT
Launch Site Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla. / Launch Complex 12
Scientific Instruments 1. Electrostatic Analyzer
2. Photoconductive Particle Detectors
3. Rubidium Vapor Magnetometer
4. Triple Coincidence Cosmic-Ray Telescope
5. Cosmic Ray Integrating Ionization Chamber
6. X-Ray Scintillation Detectors
7. Micrometeoroid Dust Particle Detectors
8. Lyman Alpha Scanning Telescope

Firsts

  • First in a series of U.S. spacecraft designed to take photos during descent to Moon's surface and to rough-land capsules with instruments
  • First American spacecraft to use a parking orbit around Earth prior to its mission

Key Dates

Aug. 23, 1961: Launch

Aug. 27, 1961: Telemetry stopped

Aug. 30, 1961: Reentered Earth's atmosphere

In Depth: Ranger 1

Ranger 1 was the first in a series of standardized NASA spacecraft designed to take photos of the surface of the Moon in advance of soft lunar landing missions. The spacecraft consisted of a tubular central body connected to a hexagonal base containing basic equipment required for control and communications. Power was provided by solar cells and a silver-zinc battery.

Ranger 1’s specific mission was to test the performance of the new technologies intended for later Ranger missions and to study the nature of particles and fields in interplanetary space. Its intended orbit was 37,300 × 684,000 miles (60,000 × 1.1. million kilometers).

Ranger 1 was the first American spacecraft to use a parking orbit around Earth prior to its deep space mission.

In this case, the Agena B upper stage cut off almost immediately after its ignition for translunar injection instead of firing for 90 seconds. The probe remained stranded in low Earth orbit (311 × 104 miles or 501 × 168 kilometers) and telemetry ceased by Aug. 27, 1961, when the main battery went dead. The spacecraft reentered Earth’s atmosphere three days later.

The cause of the Agena failure was traced to a malfunctioning switch which had prematurely choked the flow of red fuming nitric acid to the rocket engine.

Key Source

Siddiqi, Asif A. Beyond Earth: A Chronicle of Deep Space Exploration, 1958-2016. NASA History Program Office, 2018.

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