Able 4B, also known as Pioneer P-3, was part of an aggressive push to get to the Moon after the success of the Soviet Union's Luna 2 spacecraft. The spacecraft was destroyed when the fiberglass nose faring broke apart 45 seconds after launch.

This was the sixth American deep space mission attempt.

Nation United States
Objective(s) Lunar Orbit
Spacecraft P-3 / Able IVB
Spacecraft Mass 372 pounds (168.7 kilograms)
Mission Design and Management NASA / U.S. Air Force Ballistic Missile Division
Launch Vehicle Atlas Able (Atlas Able no. 1 / Atlas D No. 20)
Launch Date and Time Nov. 26, 1959 / 07:26 UT
Launch Site Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla. / Launch Complex 14
Scientific Instruments 1. high-energy radiation counter
2. ionization chamber
3. Geiger-Mueller tube
4. low-energy radiation counter
5. two magnetometers
6. photo-scanning device
7. micrometeoroid detector
8. aspect indicator
9. radio receiver to detect natural radio waves
10. transponder to measure electron densities

Firsts

  • Able4B was the first test of a combined Atlas booster and upper stage to carry heavier payloads into space.

Key Dates

Nov. 26, 1959 / 07:26 UT: Launch

Results

This was the first of three spacecraft designed by Space Technology Laboratories (STL) for a lunar assault in 1959-1960. Two of the spacecraft had originally been slated for Venus orbit in June 1959, but mission planners redirected the missions after the success of the Soviet Automatic Interplanetary Station (Luna 3) mission.

All the scientific experiments and internal instrumentation were powered by nickel-cadmium batteries charged from 1,100 solar cells on four paddles which made the vehicle resemble the recently-launched Explorer 6.

The imaging system, the same one used on Explorer 6, was comprised of a tiny 2.5 pound (1.13-kilogram) scanning device developed by STL that was “to be used in [an] attempt to get a crude outline of the Moon’s surface if the probe achieve[d] lunar orbit.”

Each probe also carried a hydrazine monopropellant tank with two thrust chambers, each with 20 pound-force (9 kilogram-force).

One probe was for lunar orbit insertion at a range of about 5,000 miles (8,000 kilometers) from the Moon. Ideal lunar orbital parameters were planned as 4,000 X 3,000 miles (6,400 × 4,800 kilometers).

The mission also inaugurated the first use of the Atlas-with-an-upper-stage combination, affording increased payload weight.

During this first launch, which took place on Thanksgiving Day 1959, the nose fairing began to break away just 45 seconds after liftoff, still during first stage operation. Aerodynamic forces then caused the third stage and payload to break away and explode.

The ground lost contact with the tumbling booster at T+104 seconds. An investigation showed that the 9.8 foot (3-meter) fiberglass shroud failed because there had been no measures to account for pressure differentials as the rocket rapidly gained altitude after liftoff.

Source

Siddiqi, Asif A. Beyond Earth: A Chronicle of Deep Space Exploration, 1958-2016. NASA History Program Office, 2018.

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