Goals: The Mars 2 mission had two objectives: to place an orbiter around Mars and to put a lander on the Martian surface in working order. Each was to take pictures and collect information about the planet. In addition, the orbiter was to monitor the solar wind and the interplanetary and Martian magnetic fields.

Accomplishments: The orbiter circled Mars as desired (a first for the USSR but the second overall, since the Soviet spacecraft arrived at Mars 13 days after America's Mariner 9) and transmitted valuable data to Earth until contact was lost in July 1972. The lander, however, entered the Martian atmosphere at too steep an angle. Its parachute failed to open and the lander crashed onto the Martian surface.

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