Goals: Fobos 1 and 2 were part of an ambitious Russian plan to explore Mars and its moon Phobos. Each spacecraft comprised an orbiter for long term studies of the planet and a lander to study geological and climatic conditions on Phobos.

Accomplishments: Contact was lost with the Fobos 1 before it reached Mars. The spacecraft flew past Mars without activating its science instruments or deploying its lander.


Siddiqi, Asif A. Beyond Earth: A Chronicle of Deep Space Exploration, 1958-2016. NASA History Program Office, 2018.