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The Hottest Planet
Venus is a dim world of intense heat and volcanic activity. Similar in structure and size to Earth, Venus' thick, toxic atmosphere traps heat in a runaway 'greenhouse effect.' The scorched world has temperatures hot enough to melt lead. Glimpses below the clouds reveal volcanoes and deformed mountains. Venus spins slowly in the opposite direction of most planets.

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  All About Venus Moons Facts & Figures Venus vs. ... Missions FAQ

Discovered By
Known by the Ancients
Date of Discovery
Unknown
Orbit Size Around Sun (semi-major axis)
Metric: 108,209,475 km
English: 67,238,251 miles
Scientific Notation: 1.0820948 x 108 km (7.2333566 x 10-1 A.U.)
By Comparison: 0.723 x Earth
Perihelion (closest)
Metric: 107,476,170 km
English: 66,782,596 miles
Scientific Notation: 1.07476 x 108 km (7.184 x 10-1 A.U.)
By Comparison: 0.731 x Earth
Aphelion (farthest)
Metric: 108,942,780 km
English: 67,693,905 miles
Scientific Notation: 1.08943 x 108 km (0.7282 A.U.)
By Comparison: 0.716 x Earth
Orbit Circumference
Metric: 679,892,378 km
English: 422,465,538 miles
Scientific Notation: 6.799 x 108 km
By Comparison: 0.723 x Earth
Average Orbit Velocity
Metric: 126,074 km/h
English: 78,339 mph
Scientific Notation: 3.5020 x 104 m/s
By Comparison: 1.176 x Earth
Orbit Eccentricity
0.00677672
By Comparison: 0.406 x Earth
Orbit Inclination
3.39 degrees
Equatorial Inclination to Orbit
177.3 degrees (retrograde rotation)
By Comparison: 7.56 x Earth
Mean Radius
Metric: 6,051.8 km
English: 3,760.4 miles
Scientific Notation: 6.0518 x 103 km
By Comparison: 0.9499 x Earth
Equatorial Circumference
Metric: 38,024.6 km
English: 23,627.4 miles
Scientific Notation: 3.80246 x 104 km
By Comparison: 0.9499 x Earth's
Volume
Metric: 928,415,345,893 km3
English: 222,738,686,740 mi3
Scientific Notation: 9.28415 x 1011 km3
By Comparison: 0.857 x Earth's
Mass
Metric: 4,867,320,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg
Scientific Notation: 4.8673 x 1024 kg
By Comparison: 0.815 x Earth
Density
Metric: 5.243 g/cm3
By Comparison: Comparable to the average density of the Earth.
Surface Area
Metric: 460,234,317 km2
English: 177,697,463 square miles
Scientific Notation: 4.6023 x 108 km2
By Comparison: 0.902 x Earth
Surface Gravity
Metric: 8.87 m/s2
English: 29.1 ft/s2
By Comparison: If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 91 pounds on Venus.
Escape Velocity
Metric: 37,296 km/h
English: 23,175 mph
Scientific Notation: 1.036 x 104 m/s
By Comparison: 0.926 x Earth
Sidereal Rotation Period (Length of Day)
-243.018 Earth days (retrograde)
-5832.4 hours (retrograde)
By Comparison: 243.68 x Earth
Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature
Metric: 462 °C
English: 864 °F
Scientific Notation: 735 K
Atmospheric Constituents
Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen
Scientific Notation: CO2, N2
By Comparison: Earth's atmosphere consists mostly of N2 and O2.
CO2 is largely responsible for the Greenhouse Effect and is used for carbonation in beverages.
N2 is 80% of Earth's air and is a crucial element in DNA.
Discovered By
Known by the Ancients
Date of Discovery
Unknown
Orbit Size Around Sun (semi-major axis)
Metric: 108,209,475 km
English: 67,238,251 miles
Scientific Notation: 1.0820948 x 108 km (7.2333566 x 10-1 A.U.)
By Comparison: 0.723 x Earth
Perihelion (closest)
Metric: 107,476,170 km
English: 66,782,596 miles
Scientific Notation: 1.07476 x 108 km (7.184 x 10-1 A.U.)
By Comparison: 0.731 x Earth
Aphelion (farthest)
Metric: 108,942,780 km
English: 67,693,905 miles
Scientific Notation: 1.08943 x 108 km (0.7282 A.U.)
By Comparison: 0.716 x Earth
Orbit Circumference
Metric: 679,892,378 km
English: 422,465,538 miles
Scientific Notation: 6.799 x 108 km
By Comparison: 0.723 x Earth
Average Orbit Velocity
Metric: 126,074 km/h
English: 78,339 mph
Scientific Notation: 3.5020 x 104 m/s
By Comparison: 1.176 x Earth
Orbit Eccentricity
0.00677672
By Comparison: 0.406 x Earth
Orbit Inclination
3.39 degrees
Equatorial Inclination to Orbit
177.3 degrees (retrograde rotation)
By Comparison: 7.56 x Earth
Mean Radius
Metric: 6,051.8 km
English: 3,760.4 miles
Scientific Notation: 6.0518 x 103 km
By Comparison: 0.9499 x Earth
Equatorial Circumference
Metric: 38,024.6 km
English: 23,627.4 miles
Scientific Notation: 3.80246 x 104 km
By Comparison: 0.9499 x Earth's
Volume
Metric: 928,415,345,893 km3
English: 222,738,686,740 mi3
Scientific Notation: 9.28415 x 1011 km3
By Comparison: 0.857 x Earth's
Mass
Metric: 4,867,320,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg
Scientific Notation: 4.8673 x 1024 kg
By Comparison: 0.815 x Earth
Density
Metric: 5.243 g/cm3
By Comparison: Comparable to the average density of the Earth.
Surface Area
Metric: 460,234,317 km2
English: 177,697,463 square miles
Scientific Notation: 4.6023 x 108 km2
By Comparison: 0.902 x Earth
Surface Gravity
Metric: 8.87 m/s2
English: 29.1 ft/s2
By Comparison: If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 91 pounds on Venus.
Escape Velocity
Metric: 37,296 km/h
English: 23,175 mph
Scientific Notation: 1.036 x 104 m/s
By Comparison: 0.926 x Earth
Sidereal Rotation Period (Length of Day)
-243.018 Earth days (retrograde)
-5832.4 hours (retrograde)
By Comparison: 243.68 x Earth
Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature
Metric: 462 °C
English: 864 °F
Scientific Notation: 735 K
Atmospheric Constituents
Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen
Scientific Notation: CO2, N2
By Comparison: Earth's atmosphere consists mostly of N2 and O2.
CO2 is largely responsible for the Greenhouse Effect and is used for carbonation in beverages.
N2 is 80% of Earth's air and is a crucial element in DNA.