National Aeronautics and Space Administration Logo
Follow this link to skip to the main content NASA Banner
Solar System Exploration
Science & Technology
The Sun Steals Comets from Other Stars
Black and white image of comet nucleus with a white coma extending beyond it.
Was comet Halley stolen from another star? It's possible. "The standard model can't produce anywhere near the number of comets we see [falling in from the Oort Cloud]," scientist Hal Levison says. "The Sun's sibling stars had to have contributed some comets to the mix."

By Dauna Coulter
Science@NASA

Nov. 23, 2010: The next time you thrill at the sight of a comet blazing across the night sky, consider this: it's a stolen pleasure. You're enjoying the spectacle at the expense of a distant star.

Sophisticated computer simulations run by researchers at the Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) have exposed the crime.
"If the results are right, our Sun snatched comets from neighboring stars' back yards," says SWRI scientist Hal Levison. And he believes this kind of thievery accounts for most of the comets in the Oort Cloud at the edge of our solar system.

A diagram showing the vast distantce between the orbits of the planets, Kuiper Belt Objects and those in the Oort Cloud. The Oort Cloud is very distant from the Sun.
An illustration of the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud in relation to our solar system.

"We know that stars form in clusters. The Sun was born within a huge community of other stars that formed in the same gas cloud. In that birth cluster, the stars were close enough together to pull comets away from each other via gravity. It's like neighborhood children playing in each others' back yards. It's hard to imagine it not happening."

According to this "thief" model, comets accompanied the nearest star when the birth cluster blew apart. The Sun made off with quite a treasure - the Oort Cloud, which was swarming with comets from all over the "neighborhood."

The Oort cloud is an immense cloud of comets orbiting the Sun far beyond Pluto. It is named after mid-20th century Dutch astronomer Jan Oort, who first proposed such a cloud to explain the origin of comets sometimes seen falling into the inner solar system. Although no confirmed direct observations of the Oort cloud have been made, most astronomers believe that it is the source of all long-period and Halley-type comets.

The standard model of comet production asserts that our Sun came by these comets honestly.
"That model says the comets are dregs of our own solar system's planetary formation and that our planets gravitationally booted them to huge distances, populating the cloud. But we believe this kind of scenario happened in all the solar systems before the birth cluster dispersed."

Otherwise, says Levison, the numbers just don't add up.

"The standard model can't produce anywhere near the number of comets we see [falling in from the Oort Cloud]. The Sun's sibling stars had to have contributed some comets to the mix."

Comets in the Oort Cloud are typically 1 or 2 miles across, and they're so far away that estimating their numbers is no easy task. But Levison and his team say that, based on observations, that there should be something like 400 billion comets there. The "domestic" model of comet formation can account for a population of only about 6 billion.

"That's a pretty anemic Oort Cloud, and a huge discrepancy - too huge to be explained by mistakes in the estimates. There's no way we could be that far off, so there has to be something wrong with the model itself."
He points to the cometary orbits as evidence.

"These comets are in very odd orbits - highly eccentric long-period orbits that take them far from our Sun, into remote regions of space. So they couldn't have been born in orbit around the Sun. They had to have formed close to other stars and then been hijacked here."

This means comets can tell us not only about the early history of the Sun - but also about the history of other stars.

"We can study the orbits of comets and put their chemistry into the context of where and around which star they formed.
It's intriguing to think we got some of our 'stuff' from distant stars. We're kin."


Last Updated: 24 January 2011

Science Features
Astrobiology
Astronomy Features
Power
Technology Assessment Reports
Sungrazing Comets

 

Best of NASA Science
NASA Science Highlights
Technology Features
Propulsion
Lectures & Discussions

Awards and Recognition   Solar System Exploration Roadmap   Contact Us   Site Map   Print This Page
NASA Official: Kristen Erickson
Advisory: Dr. James Green, Director of Planetary Science
Outreach Manager: Alice Wessen
Curator/Editor: Phil Davis
Science Writer: Autumn Burdick
Producer: Greg Baerg
Webmaster: David Martin
> NASA Science Mission Directorate
> Budgets, Strategic Plans and Accountability Reports
> Equal Employment Opportunity Data
   Posted Pursuant to the No Fear Act
> Information-Dissemination Policies and Inventories
> Freedom of Information Act
> Privacy Policy & Important Notices
> Inspector General Hotline
> Office of the Inspector General
> NASA Communications Policy
> USA.gov
> ExpectMore.gov
> NASA Advisory Council
> Open Government at NASA
Last Updated: 24 Jan 2011