National Aeronautics and Space Administration Logo
Follow this link to skip to the main content NASA Banner
RPS: Radioisotope Power Systems
Return to Solar System Exploration
Explore with radioisotope-powered missions in 3D. EYES on the SOLAR SYSTEM.
Before visiting this website, did you know NASA uses nuclear power for some missions that explore the solar system?




Radioisotope Heater Unit (RHU)

Radioisotope Heater Units (RHUs) have been called the "unsung heroes" of radioisotope power technology. Most spacecraft can use solar energy to provide heat for keeping their structures, systems, and instruments warm enough to operate effectively. But when other heat source technologies are not feasible, an alternate heat source is required for the spacecraft.

RHUs are small devices that use the decay of plutonium-238 to provide heat to keep spacecraft components and systems warm so that the equipment can survive long enough in the cold space environment to complete its mission. This heat is transferred to spacecraft structures, systems, and instruments directly, without moving parts or intervening electronic components.

By using RHUs, the spacecraft designer can allocate scarce spacecraft electrical power to operate the spacecraft systems and instruments. RHUs also provide the added benefit of reducing potential interference (electromagnetic interference) with instruments or electronics that might be generated by electrical heating systems.

An RHU contains a Pu-238 fuel pellet about the size of a pencil eraser and outputs about 1 Watt of heat. (The entire RHU is about the size of a C-cell battery.) Some missions employ just a few RHUs for extra heat, while others have dozens.

NASA missions enabled by radioisotope heater units

More about RHUs from the Department of Energy
A Radioisotope Heater Unit, with a penny for scale
Photo showing the nested layers of protection in an RHU, with a penny for scale.


Artist renderings of Galileo probe, Huygens probe and Spirit Mars Exploration Rover
Radioisotope Heater Units have been critical for providing heat to keep some spacecraft warm enough to accomplish their missions, including the battery powered Galileo and Huygens probes and the two solar powered Mars Exploration Rovers.
Back to RPS Home

Awards and Recognition   Solar System Exploration Roadmap   Contact Us   Site Map   Print This Page
NASA Official: Leonard Dudzinski
Outreach Manager: Alice Wessen
Editor: Preston Dyches
Webmaster: Sandra Cosic, Maryia Davis
> NASA Science Mission Directorate
> Budgets, Strategic Plans and Accountability Reports
> Equal Employment Opportunity Data
   Posted Pursuant to the No Fear Act
> Information-Dissemination Policies and Inventories
> Freedom of Information Act
> Privacy Policy & Important Notices
> Inspector General Hotline
> Office of the Inspector General
> NASA Communications Policy
> USA.gov
> ExpectMore.gov
> NASA Advisory Council
> Open Government at NASA
Last Updated: 13 Jul 2013