Changing Seasons on Saturn
Date: 12 Aug 2009
Of the countless equinoxes Saturn has seen since the birth of the solar system, this one, captured here in a mosaic of light and dark, is the first witnessed up close by an emissary from Earth: the Cassini spacecraft.
Seen from our planet, the view of Saturn's rings during equinox is extremely foreshortened and limited. But in orbit around Saturn, Cassini had no such problems. From 20 degrees above the ring plane, Cassini's wide angle camera shot 75 exposures in succession for this mosaic showing Saturn, its rings, and a few of its moons a day and a half after exact Saturn equinox, when the sun's disk was exactly overhead at the planet's equator.
The novel illumination geometry that accompanies equinox lowers the sun's angle to the ring plane, significantly darkens the rings, and causes out-of-plane structures to look anomalously bright and to cast shadows across the rings. These scenes are possible only during the few months before and after Saturn's equinox which occurs only once in about 15 Earth years. Before and after equinox, Cassini's cameras have spotted not only the predictable shadows of some of Saturn's moons (see PIA11657 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11657), but also the shadows of newly revealed vertical structures in the rings themselves (see PIA11665 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11665).
Also at equinox, the shadows of the planet's expansive rings are compressed into a single, narrow band cast onto the planet as seen in this mosaic. (For an earlier view of the rings' wide shadows draped high on the northern hemisphere, see PIA09793 'http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA09793'.)
With no enhancement, the rings would be essentially invisible in this mosaic. They have been brightened here to improve their visibility.
Full caption is available here.
Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute