National Aeronautics and Space Administration Logo
Follow this link to skip to the main content NASA Banner
Solar System Exploration
Sun: Facts & Figures
   Education   Missions   News   FAQ 
   Overview   Read More   Gallery   Facts & Figures 
Discovered By
Known by the Ancients
Date of Discovery
Equatorial Inclination to Orbit
7.25 with respect to the ecliptic
Mean Radius
Metric: 695,508 km
English: 432,168.6 miles
Scientific Notation: 6.9551 x 105 km
By Comparison: 109.2 x that of Earth
Equatorial Circumference
Metric: 4,370,005.6 km
English: 2,715,395.6 miles
Scientific Notation: 4.37001 x 106 km
By Comparison: 109.2 x that of Earth
Metric: 1,409,272,569,059,860,000 km3
English: 338,102,469,632,763,000 mi3
Scientific Notation: 1.40927 x 1018 km3
By Comparison: 1,301,018.805 Earths
Metric: 1,989,100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg
English: 4,385,214,857,119,400,000,000,000,000,000 lbs
Scientific Notation: 1.989 x 1030 kg
By Comparison: 333,060.402 x Earth's
Metric: 1.409 g/cm3
By Comparison: 0.256 that of Earth
Surface Area
Metric: 6,078,747,774,547 km2
English: 2,347,017,636,988 square miles
Scientific Notation: 6.07877 x 1012 km2
By Comparison: 11,917.607 Earths
Surface Gravity
Metric: 274.0 m/s2
English: 899.0 ft/s2
Scientific Notation: 2.740 x 102 m/s2
By Comparison: 27.96 x Earth's surface gravity
Escape Velocity
Metric: 2,223,720 km/h
English: 1,381,756 mph
Scientific Notation: 6.177 x 105 m/s
By Comparison: 55.20 x Earth
Sidereal Rotation Period (Length of Day)
25.38 Earth days
609.12 hours
By Comparison: Rotation slows to about 35 days at the poles.
Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature
Metric: 5,500 °C
English: 10,000 °F
Effective Temperature
Metric: 5504 °C
English: 9939 °F
Scientific Notation: 5777 K

Additional Information:

Spectral Type: G2 V Luminosity: 3.83 x 10 33 ergs/sec.

Age: 4.6 Billion Years

Composition: 92.1% Hydrogen, 7.8% Helium

Synodic Period: 27.2753 days

Rotation Period at Equator: 26.8 days

Rotation Period at Poles: 36 days

Velocity Relative to Near Stars: 19.7 km/s

Mean Distance to Earth: 149.60 million km (92.96 million mi) (1 astronomical unit)

Solar Constant (Total Solar Irradiance): 1.365 - 1.369 kW/m2
(at the mean distance of the earth from the Sun, about one AU)
Awards and Recognition   Solar System Exploration Roadmap   Contact Us   Site Map   Print This Page
NASA Official: Kristen Erickson
Advisory: Dr. James Green, Director of Planetary Science
Outreach Manager: Alice Wessen
Curator/Editor: Phil Davis
Science Writers: Courtney O'Connor and Bill Dunford
Producer: Greg Baerg
Webmaster: David Martin
> NASA Science Mission Directorate
> Budgets, Strategic Plans and Accountability Reports
> Equal Employment Opportunity Data
   Posted Pursuant to the No Fear Act
> Information-Dissemination Policies and Inventories
> Freedom of Information Act
> Privacy Policy & Important Notices
> Inspector General Hotline
> Office of the Inspector General
> NASA Communications Policy
> NASA Advisory Council
> Open Government at NASA
Last Updated: 5 May 2014