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Solar System Exploration
Mars: Facts & Figures
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Discovered By
Known by the Ancients
Date of Discovery
Orbit Size Around Sun (semi-major axis)
Metric: 227,943,824 km
English: 141,637,725 miles
Scientific Notation: 2.2794382 x 108 km (1.523662 A.U.)
By Comparison: 1.524 x Earth
Perihelion (closest)
Metric: 206,655,215 km
English: 128,409,598 miles
Scientific Notation: 2.06655 x 108 km (1.381 A.U.)
By Comparison: 1.405 x Earth
Aphelion (farthest)
Metric: 249,232,432 km
English: 154,865,853 miles
Scientific Notation: 2.49232 x 108 km (1.666 A.U.)
By Comparison: 1.639 x Earth
Sidereal Orbit Period (Length of Year)
1.8808476 Earth years
686.98 Earth days
By Comparison: 1.881 x Earth
Orbit Circumference
Metric: 1,429,085,052 km
English: 887,992,283 miles
Scientific Notation: 1.429 x 109 km
By Comparison: 1.520 x Earth
Average Orbit Velocity
Metric: 86,677 km/h
English: 53,858 mph
Scientific Notation: 2.4077 x 104 m/s
By Comparison: 0.808 x Earth
Orbit Eccentricity
By Comparison: 5.589 x Earth
Orbit Inclination
1.85 degrees
Equatorial Inclination to Orbit
Mean Radius
Metric: 3,389.5 km
English: 2,106.1 miles
Scientific Notation: 3.3895 x 103 km
By Comparison: 0.5320 x Earth
Equatorial Circumference
Metric: 21,296.9 km
English: 13,233.3 miles
Scientific Notation: 2.12969 x 104 km
Metric: 163,115,609,799 km3
English: 39,133,515,914 mi3
Scientific Notation: 1.63116 X 1011 km3
By Comparison: 0.151 x Earth
Metric: 641,693,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg
Scientific Notation: 6.4169 x 1023 kg
By Comparison: 0.107 x Earth
Metric: 3.934 g/cm3
By Comparison: 0.714 x Earth
Surface Area
Metric: 144,371,391 km2
English: 55,742,106 square miles
Scientific Notation: 1.4437 x 108 km2
By Comparison: 0.283 x Earth
Surface Gravity
Metric: 3.71 m/s2
English: 12.2 ft/s2
By Comparison: If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 38 pounds on Mars.
Escape Velocity
Metric: 18,108 km/h
English: 11,252 mph
Scientific Notation: 5.030 x 103 m/s
By Comparison: Escape velocity of Earth is 25,030 mph.
Sidereal Rotation Period (Length of Day)
1.026 Earth days
24.623 hours
By Comparison: Earth's rotation period is 23.934 hours.
Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature
Metric: -153 to +20 °C
English: -225 to +70 °F
Scientific Notation: 120 to 293 K
Atmospheric Constituents
Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Argon
Scientific Notation: CO2, N2, Ar
By Comparison: CO2 is responsible for the Greenhouse Effect and is used for carbonation in beverages.
N2 is 80% of Earth's air and is a crucial element in DNA. Ar is used to make blue neon light bulbs.
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Last Updated: 30 Aug 2014