NASA'S Two Great Observatories Keep Their "Eyes" on Comet Linear
27 Jul 2000
(Source: NASA Headquarters)
Dolores Beasley/Don Savage
Headquarters, Washington, DC
Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD
Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL
Dr. Wallace Tucker
Chandra X-ray Observatory Center, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA
When NASA's two great observatories, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-ray observatory, recently observed comet LINEAR (C/1999 S4) astronomers received some abrupt surprises.
Using the Hubble Space Telescope, researchers were surprised to catch the icy comet in a brief, violent outburst when it blew off a piece of its crust, like a cork popping off a champagne bottle.
The eruption, the comet's equivalent of a volcanic explosion - though temperatures are far below freezing (about minus 100 degrees Fahrenheit or minus 40 degrees Celsius) in the icy regions of the nucleus or core - spewed a great deal of dust into space. This mist of dust reflected sunlight, dramatically increasing the comet's brightness over several hours. Hubble's sharp vision recorded the entire event and even snapped a picture of the chunk of material jettisoned from the nucleus and floating away along the comet's tail.
"We lucked out completely," said Hubble comet-watcher Harold Weaver of the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD. "In one surge of brilliance this under-performing comet showed us what it could have been. Comet LINEAR generally has not been as bright as we had hoped, but occasionally does something exciting."
Though comet nuclei have been known to fragment, Hubble's sharp vision is revealing finer details of how they break apart. This unexpected glimpse at a transitory event may indicate that these types of "Mt. Saint Helens" outbursts occur frequently on the comet, because it is unlikely that Hubble just happened to catch one isolated event, Weaver said.
The orbiting observatory's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph tracked the streaking comet for two days, July 5 to 7, capturing the leap in brightness and discovering the castaway chunk of material sailing along its tail. When the Hubble telescope first spied the comet 74 million miles (120 million km) from Earth, it watched the icy object's brightness rise by about 50 percent in less than four hours. By the next day, the comet was a third less luminous than it had been the previous day. On the final day, the comet was back to normal.
During the outburst's peak, the astronomers believe that the comet jettisoned the piece of its crust seen days later in the tail. The renegade fragment moved away from the core's weak gravitational grasp at an average speed of about six miles per hour, which is a little more than a brisk walking pace.
A week later, on July 14, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory imaged the comet and detected X-rays from oxygen and nitrogen ions. The details of the X-ray emission, as recorded on Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS), show that the X-rays are produced by collisions of ions racing away from the Sun with gas in the comet.
"This observation solves one mystery. It proves how comets produce X-rays," said Carey Lisse of the Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD, leader of a team of scientists from the institute; NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD; Johns Hopkins; the University of California, Berkeley; and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA. "With an instrument like Chandra, we can now study the chemistry of the solar wind and observe the X-ray glow of the atmosphere of comets, as well as other planets such as Venus."
Comet LINEAR was named for the observatory that originally discovered it in September 1999. LINEAR is the acronym for Lincoln Near Earth Asteroid Research, a project operated by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA, to search for Earth-approaching objects.
The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract with Goddard Space Flight Center. The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and the European Space Agency.
Chandra's ACIS instrument was built for NASA by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, and Pennsylvania State University, University Park. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, manages the Chandra program. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Observatory Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, MA.
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