Solar System Temperatures
In this diagram, we view the planets' -- and dwarf planet Pluto's -- temperatures in both Fahrenheit and Celsius. (Planetary objects are not shown to scale.)
In general, the surface temperature decreases with increasing distance from the sun. Venus is an exception because its dense atmosphere acts as a greenhouse and heats the surface to above the melting point of lead (880 degrees Fahrenheit, 471 degrees Celsius).
Mercury rotates slowly and has a thin atmosphere, and consequently, the night-side temperature can be more than 1000 degrees (Fahrenheit) lower than the day-side temperature shown on the diagram. It can be as cold as -290 degrees Fahrenheit (-179 degrees Celsius) on Mercury during the night.
Temperatures for the gas giants (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) are taken from a level in the atmosphere equal in pressure to sea level on Earth.
Last Update: 27 Nov 2012 (AMB)
Credit: Lunar and Planetary Institute