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Venera 9 and 10
Venera 9 and 10 (click to enlarge)

Venera 9 and 10
Date: 8 Jun 1975

The Soviet Union used the same kind of lander for Venera 9 and 10.

Venera 9 logged several firsts. It was the first spacecraft to orbit Venus and the first mission to transmit photographs from the surface of another world. The orbiter fulfilled its communications mission while photographing the planet's atmosphere in UV light and conducting other investigations. The lander transmitted data from Venus' surface for 53 minutes, including taking a 180° panorama of the rocky Venusian surface. Illumination at the surface was said to be as bright as Moscow on a cloudy day in June. Gamma ray measurements indicated that the probe landed on a basaltic surface. Temperature at the surface was found to be 460°C (860°F); atmospheric pressure was 90 times that of Earth.

Image Credit: NASA

Credit: NASA

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