National Aeronautics and Space Administration Logo
Follow this link to skip to the main content NASA Banner
Solar System Exploration
Missions
Lunar Orbiter 3
 By Target   By Name   By Decade 
Search all Missions Between:      and      Search
1950-1959 1960-1969 1970-1979 1980-1989 1990-1999 2000-2009 2010-2019 2020+
Lunar Orbiter 3
Lunar Orbiter 3 Mission to Earth's Moon

Mission Type: Orbiter
Launch Vehicle: Atlas-Agena D (no. 20 / Atlas D no. 5803 / Agena D no. AD128 / 6632)
Launch Site: Eastern Test Range / launch complex 13, Cape Canaveral, USA
NASA Center: Langley Research Center
Spacecraft Mass: 385.6 kg
Spacecraft Instruments: 1) imaging system; 2) micrometeoroid detectors; and 3) radiation dosimeters
Spacecraft Dimensions: 2 m high, 5.2 m across with dish and omnidirectional antenna deployed
Spacecraft Power: Four solar panels; nickel-cadmium batteries for use in Moon's shadow
Maximum Power: 375 W
Antenna Diameter: 1 meter (high-gain antenna)
Total Cost: The five spacecraft in the Lunar Orbiter program cost about $163 million.
References:
Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000, Monographs in Aerospace History No. 24, by Asif A. Siddiqi

National Space Science Data Center, http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/

Solar System Log by Andrew Wilson, published 1987 by Jane's Publishing Co. Ltd.


Lunar Orbiter 3 was the final Lunar Orbiter mission to study potential Apollo landing sites; further missions would be dedicated to scientific and global surveys.

The spacecraft arrived in lunar orbit on 7 February 1967. Initial orbital parameters were 200 x 1,850 kilometers at 21° inclination. During its eight-month mission, the spacecraft took 211 frames of pictures, although only 182 were actually returned to Earth because of a problem on 24 February with the motor that rewound the film.

Despite the minor glitch, Lunar Orbiter fulfilled its original mission objectives, returning images of 15.5 million square kilometers of the near side and 650,000 square kilometers of the far side.

On 30 August 1967, ground controllers commanded the vehicle to circularize its orbit to 160 kilometers in order to simulate an Apollo trajectory.

Later, on 9 October 1967, the probe was intentionally crashed onto the lunar surface at 14°36' north latitude and 91°42' west longitude. The photographs from the first three Lunar Orbiters allowed NASA scientists to pick eight preliminary landing sites for Apollo by early April 1967, including site 2 in the Sea of Tranquility, where Apollo 11 would land, and site 5 in the Ocean of Storms, where Apollo 12 (and also Surveyor 3) would disembark.


Key Dates
5 Feb 1967:  Launch
9 Oct 1967:  End of Lunar Mission
Status: Successful
Fast Facts
Lunar Orbiter 3 Facts Lunar Orbiter 3 helped in the selection of landing sites for Apollo 11 (right) and 12.

Mission controllers also used the spacecraft to simulate the trajectory of Apollo missions.

It was deliberately crashed into the Moon at the end of its mission to avoid potential communication interference.
Science & Technology Features
Links
Awards and Recognition   Solar System Exploration Roadmap   Contact Us   Site Map   Print This Page
NASA Official: Kristen Erickson
Advisory: Dr. James Green, Director of Planetary Science
Outreach Manager: Alice Wessen
Curator/Editor: Phil Davis
Science Writer: Autumn Burdick
Producer: Greg Baerg
Webmaster: David Martin
> NASA Science Mission Directorate
> Budgets, Strategic Plans and Accountability Reports
> Equal Employment Opportunity Data
   Posted Pursuant to the No Fear Act
> Information-Dissemination Policies and Inventories
> Freedom of Information Act
> Privacy Policy & Important Notices
> Inspector General Hotline
> Office of the Inspector General
> NASA Communications Policy
> USA.gov
> ExpectMore.gov
> NASA Advisory Council
> Open Government at NASA
Last Updated: 29 Nov 2010