Mission Type: Orbiter
Launch Vehicle: Proton booster plus upper stage and escape stages, 8K82K + Blok D (Proton-K no. 262-01)
Launch Site: Tyuratam (Baikonur Cosmodrome), USSR, NIIP-5 / launch site 81P
Spacecraft Mass: 3,440 kg
Spacecraft Instruments: 1) atmospheric radio-probing instrument; 2) radio telescope; 3) infrared radiometer; 4) spectrophotometer; 5) narrow-band photometer; 6) narrow-band interference-polarization photometer; 7) imaging system; 8) photometers; 9) two polarimeters; 10) ultraviolet photometer; 11) scattered solar radiation photometer; 12) gamma spectrometer; 13) magnetometer; 14) plasma traps and 15) multichannel electrostatic analyzer
Deep Space Chronicle: A Chronology of Deep Space and Planetary Probes 1958-2000, Monographs in Aerospace History No. 24, by Asif A. Siddiqi
National Space Science Data Center, http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/
Solar System Log by Andrew Wilson, published 1987 by Jane's Publishing Co. Ltd.
Mars 5 was the sister orbiter to Mars 4. After two midcourse corrections on 3 August 1973 and 2 February 1974, Mars 5 successfully fired its main engine at 15:44:25 UT to enter orbit around the planet. Initial orbital parameters were 1,760 x 32,586 kilometers at 35°19'17'' inclination.
Soon after orbital insertion, ground controllers detected the slow depressurization of the main instrument compartment on the orbiter-probably as a result of an impact with a particle during or after orbital insertion. Calculations showed that at the current rate of loss of air, the spacecraft would be operational for approximately three weeks.
Scientists drew up a special accelerated science program that included imaging of the surface at 100 meters resolution. Five imaging sessions between 17 and 26 February 1974 produced a total of 180 frames of 43 usable photographs. Additionally, Mars 5 took five panoramas of the surface. The last communication with Mars 5, when the final panorama was transmitted back to
Earth, took place on 28 February 1974, after which pressure in the spacecraft decreased to below working levels.
Mars 5 photos, some of which were of comparable quality to those of Mariner 9, clearly showed surface features that indicated erosion caused by free- flowing water. Mars 5 was supposed to act as a data relay for the Mars 6 and Mars 7 landers but was obviously unable to do so.