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The Windiest Planet
Dark, cold and whipped by supersonic winds, Neptune is the last of the hydrogen and helium gas giants in our solar system. More than 30 times as far from the sun as Earth, the planet takes almost 165 Earth years to orbit our sun. In 2011 Neptune completed its first orbit since its discovery in 1846.

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Discovered By
Urbain Le Verrier, John Couch Adams, Johann Galle
Date of Discovery
23 September 1846
Orbit Size Around Sun (semi-major axis)
Metric: 4,498,396,441 km
English: 2,795,173,960 miles
Scientific Notation: 4.4983964 x 109 km (3.0069923 x 101 A.U.)
By Comparison: 30.070 x Earth
Perihelion (closest)
Metric: 4,459,753,056 km
English: 2,771,162,074 miles
Scientific Notation: 4.45975 x 109 km (2.981 x 101 A.U.)
By Comparison: 30.318 x Earth
Aphelion (farthest)
Metric: 4,537,039,826 km
English: 2,819,185,846 miles
Scientific Notation: 4.53704 x 109 km (3.033 x 101 A.U.)
By Comparison: 29.830 x Earth
Orbit Circumference
Metric: 28,263,736,967 km
English: 17,562,271,937 miles
Scientific Notation: 2.826 x 1010 km
By Comparison: 30.071 x Earth
Average Orbit Velocity
Metric: 19,566 km/h
English: 12,158 mph
Scientific Notation: 5.4349 x 103 m/s
By Comparison: 0.182 x Earth
Orbit Eccentricity
0.00859048
By Comparison: 0.514 x Earth
Orbit Inclination
1.77 degrees
Equatorial Inclination to Orbit
28.3 degrees
Mean Radius
Metric: 24,622 km
English: 15,299.4 miles
Scientific Notation: 2.4622 x 104 km
By Comparison: 3.8647 x Earth
Equatorial Circumference
Metric: 154,704.6 km
English: 96,129.0 miles
Scientific Notation: 1.54705 x 105 km
By Comparison: 3.8647 x Earth
Volume
Metric: 62,525,703,987,421 km3
English: 15,000,714,125,712 mi3
Scientific Notation: 6.25257 x 1013 km3
By Comparison: 57.723 x Earth
Mass
Metric: 102,410,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg
Scientific Notation: 1.0241 x 1026 kg
By Comparison: 17.148 x Earth
Density
Metric: 1.638 g/cm3
By Comparison: 0.297 x Earth
Surface Area
Metric: 7,618,272,763 km2
English: 2,941,431,558 square miles
Scientific Notation: 7.6183 x 109 km2
By Comparison: 14.980 x Earth
Surface Gravity
Metric: 11.15 m/s2
English: 36.6 ft/s2
By Comparison: If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 114 pounds on Neptune.
Escape Velocity
Metric: 84,816 km/h
English: 52,702 mph
Scientific Notation: 2.356 x 104 m/s
By Comparison: By Comparison: 2.105 x Earth.
Sidereal Rotation Period (Length of Day)
0.671 Earth days
16.11000 hours
By Comparison: 0.67 x Earth
Effective Temperature
Metric: -214 °C
English: -353 °F
Scientific Notation: 59 K
Atmospheric Constituents
Hydrogen, Helium, Methane
Scientific Notation: H2, He, CH4
By Comparison: Earth atmosphere consists mostly of N2 and O2.
Discovered By
Urbain Le Verrier, John Couch Adams, Johann Galle
Date of Discovery
23 September 1846
Orbit Size Around Sun (semi-major axis)
Metric: 4,498,396,441 km
English: 2,795,173,960 miles
Scientific Notation: 4.4983964 x 109 km (3.0069923 x 101 A.U.)
By Comparison: 30.070 x Earth
Perihelion (closest)
Metric: 4,459,753,056 km
English: 2,771,162,074 miles
Scientific Notation: 4.45975 x 109 km (2.981 x 101 A.U.)
By Comparison: 30.318 x Earth
Aphelion (farthest)
Metric: 4,537,039,826 km
English: 2,819,185,846 miles
Scientific Notation: 4.53704 x 109 km (3.033 x 101 A.U.)
By Comparison: 29.830 x Earth
Orbit Circumference
Metric: 28,263,736,967 km
English: 17,562,271,937 miles
Scientific Notation: 2.826 x 1010 km
By Comparison: 30.071 x Earth
Average Orbit Velocity
Metric: 19,566 km/h
English: 12,158 mph
Scientific Notation: 5.4349 x 103 m/s
By Comparison: 0.182 x Earth
Orbit Eccentricity
0.00859048
By Comparison: 0.514 x Earth
Orbit Inclination
1.77 degrees
Equatorial Inclination to Orbit
28.3 degrees
Mean Radius
Metric: 24,622 km
English: 15,299.4 miles
Scientific Notation: 2.4622 x 104 km
By Comparison: 3.8647 x Earth
Equatorial Circumference
Metric: 154,704.6 km
English: 96,129.0 miles
Scientific Notation: 1.54705 x 105 km
By Comparison: 3.8647 x Earth
Volume
Metric: 62,525,703,987,421 km3
English: 15,000,714,125,712 mi3
Scientific Notation: 6.25257 x 1013 km3
By Comparison: 57.723 x Earth
Mass
Metric: 102,410,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg
Scientific Notation: 1.0241 x 1026 kg
By Comparison: 17.148 x Earth
Density
Metric: 1.638 g/cm3
By Comparison: 0.297 x Earth
Surface Area
Metric: 7,618,272,763 km2
English: 2,941,431,558 square miles
Scientific Notation: 7.6183 x 109 km2
By Comparison: 14.980 x Earth
Surface Gravity
Metric: 11.15 m/s2
English: 36.6 ft/s2
By Comparison: If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 114 pounds on Neptune.
Escape Velocity
Metric: 84,816 km/h
English: 52,702 mph
Scientific Notation: 2.356 x 104 m/s
By Comparison: By Comparison: 2.105 x Earth.
Sidereal Rotation Period (Length of Day)
0.671 Earth days
16.11000 hours
By Comparison: 0.67 x Earth
Effective Temperature
Metric: -214 °C
English: -353 °F
Scientific Notation: 59 K
Atmospheric Constituents
Hydrogen, Helium, Methane
Scientific Notation: H2, He, CH4
By Comparison: Earth atmosphere consists mostly of N2 and O2.