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Our Nearest Neighbor
Our moon makes Earth a more livable planet by moderating our home planet's wobble on its axis, leading to a relatively stable climate, and creating a tidal rhythm that has guided humans for thousands of years. The moon was likely formed after a Mars-sized body collided with Earth and the debris formed into the most prominent feature in our night sky.

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  About Earth's Moon Facts & Figures Earth's Moon vs. ... Missions FAQ

Discovered By
Known by the Ancients
Date of Discovery
Unknown
Orbit Size Around Earth (semi-major axis)
Metric: 384,400 km
English: 238,855 miles
Scientific Notation: 3.84400 x 105 km (0.00257 A.U.)
By Comparison: 0.00257 x Earth's Distance from the Sun
Average Distance from Earth
Metric: 384,400 km
English: 238,855 miles
Scientific Notation: 3.844 x 105 km (2.570 x 10-3 A.U.)
By Comparison: 0.00257 x Earth's distance from the Sun
Perigee (closest)
Metric: 363,104 km
English: 225,623 miles
Scientific Notation: 3.631 x 105 km (2.427 x 10-3 A.U.)
By Comparison: 0.00243 x Earth's distance from the Sun
Apogee (farthest)
Metric: 405,696 km
English: 252,088 miles
Scientific Notation: 4.057 x 105 km (2.712 x 10-3 A.U.)
By Comparison: 0.00271 x Earth's distance from the Sun
Sidereal Orbit Period (Length of Year)
0.074803559 Earth years
27.322 Earth days
Orbit Circumference
Metric: 2,413,402.16 km
English: 1,499,618.58 miles
Scientific Notation: 2.413 x 106 km
Average Orbit Velocity
Metric: 3,680.5 km/h
English: 2,287.0 mph
Scientific Notation: 1,022 m/s
By Comparison: 0.034 x Earth
Orbit Eccentricity
0.0554
By Comparison: 3.315 x Earth
Orbit Inclination
5.16 degrees
By Comparison: Oscillates roughly 0.15 degrees in 173 days.
Equatorial Inclination to Orbit
6.68 degrees
Mean Radius
Metric: 1737.5 km
English: 1079.6 miles
Scientific Notation: 1.738 x 103 km
By Comparison: 0.2727 x Earth
Equatorial Circumference
Metric: 10,917.0 km
English: 6,783.5 miles
Scientific Notation: 1.0917 x 104 km
Volume
Metric: 21,971,669,064 km3
Scientific Notation: 2.197 x 1010 km3
By Comparison: 0.020 x Earth
Mass
Metric: 73,476,730,924,573,500,000,000 kg
Scientific Notation: 7.3477 x 1022 kg
By Comparison: 0.0123 x Earth
Density
Metric: 3.344 g/cm3
By Comparison: 0.607 x Earth
Surface Area
Metric: 37,936,694.79 km2
English: 14,647,439.75 square miles
Scientific Notation: 3.793669 x 107 km2
By Comparison: 0.074 x Earth
Surface Gravity
Metric: 1.624 m/s2
English: 5.328 ft/s2
Scientific Notation: 1.624 m/s2
By Comparison: 0.166 x Earth
Escape Velocity
Metric: 8,552 km/h
English: 5,314 mph
Scientific Notation: 2,376 m/s
By Comparison: 0.212 x Earth
Sidereal Rotation Period (Length of Day)
27.322 Earth days
655.73 hours
By Comparison: Synchronous with Orbital Period
Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature
Metric: -233/123 °C
English: -387/253 °F
Scientific Notation: 40/396 K

Additional Information:

Because of the gravitational pull of the sun, the extreme ranges of the Moon from the Earth are from 356,400 km to 406,700 km.
Discovered By
Known by the Ancients
Date of Discovery
Unknown
Orbit Size Around Earth (semi-major axis)
Metric: 384,400 km
English: 238,855 miles
Scientific Notation: 3.84400 x 105 km (0.00257 A.U.)
By Comparison: 0.00257 x Earth's Distance from the Sun
Average Distance from Earth
Metric: 384,400 km
English: 238,855 miles
Scientific Notation: 3.844 x 105 km (2.570 x 10-3 A.U.)
By Comparison: 0.00257 x Earth's distance from the Sun
Perigee (closest)
Metric: 363,104 km
English: 225,623 miles
Scientific Notation: 3.631 x 105 km (2.427 x 10-3 A.U.)
By Comparison: 0.00243 x Earth's distance from the Sun
Apogee (farthest)
Metric: 405,696 km
English: 252,088 miles
Scientific Notation: 4.057 x 105 km (2.712 x 10-3 A.U.)
By Comparison: 0.00271 x Earth's distance from the Sun
Sidereal Orbit Period (Length of Year)
0.074803559 Earth years
27.322 Earth days
Orbit Circumference
Metric: 2,413,402.16 km
English: 1,499,618.58 miles
Scientific Notation: 2.413 x 106 km
Average Orbit Velocity
Metric: 3,680.5 km/h
English: 2,287.0 mph
Scientific Notation: 1,022 m/s
By Comparison: 0.034 x Earth
Orbit Eccentricity
0.0554
By Comparison: 3.315 x Earth
Orbit Inclination
5.16 degrees
By Comparison: Oscillates roughly 0.15 degrees in 173 days.
Equatorial Inclination to Orbit
6.68 degrees
Mean Radius
Metric: 1737.5 km
English: 1079.6 miles
Scientific Notation: 1.738 x 103 km
By Comparison: 0.2727 x Earth
Equatorial Circumference
Metric: 10,917.0 km
English: 6,783.5 miles
Scientific Notation: 1.0917 x 104 km
Volume
Metric: 21,971,669,064 km3
Scientific Notation: 2.197 x 1010 km3
By Comparison: 0.020 x Earth
Mass
Metric: 73,476,730,924,573,500,000,000 kg
Scientific Notation: 7.3477 x 1022 kg
By Comparison: 0.0123 x Earth
Density
Metric: 3.344 g/cm3
By Comparison: 0.607 x Earth
Surface Area
Metric: 37,936,694.79 km2
English: 14,647,439.75 square miles
Scientific Notation: 3.793669 x 107 km2
By Comparison: 0.074 x Earth
Surface Gravity
Metric: 1.624 m/s2
English: 5.328 ft/s2
Scientific Notation: 1.624 m/s2
By Comparison: 0.166 x Earth
Escape Velocity
Metric: 8,552 km/h
English: 5,314 mph
Scientific Notation: 2,376 m/s
By Comparison: 0.212 x Earth
Sidereal Rotation Period (Length of Day)
27.322 Earth days
655.73 hours
By Comparison: Synchronous with Orbital Period
Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature
Metric: -233/123 °C
English: -387/253 °F
Scientific Notation: 40/396 K

Additional Information:

Because of the gravitational pull of the sun, the extreme ranges of the Moon from the Earth are from 356,400 km to 406,700 km.