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The Red Planet
Mars is a cold desert world. It is half the diameter of Earth and has the same amount of dry land. Like Earth, Mars has seasons, polar ice caps, volcanoes, canyons and weather, but its atmosphere is too thin for liquid water to exist for long on the surface. There are signs of ancient floods on Mars, but evidence for water now exists mainly in icy soil and thin clouds.

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  About Mars Moons Facts & Figures Mars vs. ... Missions FAQ

Discovered By
Known by the Ancients
Date of Discovery
Unknown
Orbit Size Around Sun (semi-major axis)
Metric: 227,943,824 km
English: 141,637,725 miles
Scientific Notation: 2.2794382 x 108 km (1.523662 A.U.)
By Comparison: 1.524 x Earth
Perihelion (closest)
Metric: 206,655,215 km
English: 128,409,598 miles
Scientific Notation: 2.06655 x 108 km (1.381 A.U.)
By Comparison: 1.405 x Earth
Aphelion (farthest)
Metric: 249,232,432 km
English: 154,865,853 miles
Scientific Notation: 2.49232 x 108 km (1.666 A.U.)
By Comparison: 1.639 x Earth
Sidereal Orbit Period (Length of Year)
1.8808476 Earth years
686.98 Earth days
By Comparison: 1.881 x Earth
Orbit Circumference
Metric: 1,429,085,052 km
English: 887,992,283 miles
Scientific Notation: 1.429 x 109 km
By Comparison: 1.520 x Earth
Average Orbit Velocity
Metric: 86,677 km/h
English: 53,858 mph
Scientific Notation: 2.4077 x 104 m/s
By Comparison: 0.808 x Earth
Orbit Eccentricity
0.0933941
By Comparison: 5.589 x Earth
Orbit Inclination
1.85 degrees
Equatorial Inclination to Orbit
25.2
Mean Radius
Metric: 3,389.5 km
English: 2,106.1 miles
Scientific Notation: 3.3895 x 103 km
By Comparison: 0.5320 x Earth
Equatorial Circumference
Metric: 21,296.9 km
English: 13,233.3 miles
Scientific Notation: 2.12969 x 104 km
Volume
Metric: 163,115,609,799 km3
English: 39,133,515,914 mi3
Scientific Notation: 1.63116 X 1011 km3
By Comparison: 0.151 x Earth
Mass
Metric: 641,693,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg
Scientific Notation: 6.4169 x 1023 kg
By Comparison: 0.107 x Earth
Density
Metric: 3.934 g/cm3
By Comparison: 0.714 x Earth
Surface Area
Metric: 144,371,391 km2
English: 55,742,106 square miles
Scientific Notation: 1.4437 x 108 km2
By Comparison: 0.283 x Earth
Surface Gravity
Metric: 3.71 m/s2
English: 12.2 ft/s2
By Comparison: If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 38 pounds on Mars.
Escape Velocity
Metric: 18,108 km/h
English: 11,252 mph
Scientific Notation: 5.030 x 103 m/s
By Comparison: Escape velocity of Earth is 25,030 mph.
Sidereal Rotation Period (Length of Day)
1.026 Earth days
24.623 hours
By Comparison: Earth's rotation period is 23.934 hours.
Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature
Metric: -153 to +20 °C
English: -225 to +70 °F
Scientific Notation: 120 to 293 K
Atmospheric Constituents
Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Argon
Scientific Notation: CO2, N2, Ar
By Comparison: CO2 is responsible for the Greenhouse Effect and is used for carbonation in beverages.
N2 is 80% of Earth's air and is a crucial element in DNA. Ar is used to make blue neon light bulbs.
Discovered By
Known by the Ancients
Date of Discovery
Unknown
Orbit Size Around Sun (semi-major axis)
Metric: 227,943,824 km
English: 141,637,725 miles
Scientific Notation: 2.2794382 x 108 km (1.523662 A.U.)
By Comparison: 1.524 x Earth
Perihelion (closest)
Metric: 206,655,215 km
English: 128,409,598 miles
Scientific Notation: 2.06655 x 108 km (1.381 A.U.)
By Comparison: 1.405 x Earth
Aphelion (farthest)
Metric: 249,232,432 km
English: 154,865,853 miles
Scientific Notation: 2.49232 x 108 km (1.666 A.U.)
By Comparison: 1.639 x Earth
Sidereal Orbit Period (Length of Year)
1.8808476 Earth years
686.98 Earth days
By Comparison: 1.881 x Earth
Orbit Circumference
Metric: 1,429,085,052 km
English: 887,992,283 miles
Scientific Notation: 1.429 x 109 km
By Comparison: 1.520 x Earth
Average Orbit Velocity
Metric: 86,677 km/h
English: 53,858 mph
Scientific Notation: 2.4077 x 104 m/s
By Comparison: 0.808 x Earth
Orbit Eccentricity
0.0933941
By Comparison: 5.589 x Earth
Orbit Inclination
1.85 degrees
Equatorial Inclination to Orbit
25.2
Mean Radius
Metric: 3,389.5 km
English: 2,106.1 miles
Scientific Notation: 3.3895 x 103 km
By Comparison: 0.5320 x Earth
Equatorial Circumference
Metric: 21,296.9 km
English: 13,233.3 miles
Scientific Notation: 2.12969 x 104 km
Volume
Metric: 163,115,609,799 km3
English: 39,133,515,914 mi3
Scientific Notation: 1.63116 X 1011 km3
By Comparison: 0.151 x Earth
Mass
Metric: 641,693,000,000,000,000,000,000 kg
Scientific Notation: 6.4169 x 1023 kg
By Comparison: 0.107 x Earth
Density
Metric: 3.934 g/cm3
By Comparison: 0.714 x Earth
Surface Area
Metric: 144,371,391 km2
English: 55,742,106 square miles
Scientific Notation: 1.4437 x 108 km2
By Comparison: 0.283 x Earth
Surface Gravity
Metric: 3.71 m/s2
English: 12.2 ft/s2
By Comparison: If you weigh 100 pounds on Earth, you would weigh 38 pounds on Mars.
Escape Velocity
Metric: 18,108 km/h
English: 11,252 mph
Scientific Notation: 5.030 x 103 m/s
By Comparison: Escape velocity of Earth is 25,030 mph.
Sidereal Rotation Period (Length of Day)
1.026 Earth days
24.623 hours
By Comparison: Earth's rotation period is 23.934 hours.
Minimum/Maximum Surface Temperature
Metric: -153 to +20 °C
English: -225 to +70 °F
Scientific Notation: 120 to 293 K
Atmospheric Constituents
Carbon Dioxide, Nitrogen, Argon
Scientific Notation: CO2, N2, Ar
By Comparison: CO2 is responsible for the Greenhouse Effect and is used for carbonation in beverages.
N2 is 80% of Earth's air and is a crucial element in DNA. Ar is used to make blue neon light bulbs.