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Short Description: Jell-O is used to explore how lava flows in a volcano.
Volcanism in the Solar System
Grade Level: 9-12
Our Solar System,
2001 Mars Odyssey (Mars),
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Mars),
Venus Express (Venus)
Science Education Standards:
By the end of 12th grade, students should know that:
- Earthquakes often occur along the boundaries between colliding plates, and molten rock from below creates pressure that is released by volcanic eruptions, helping to build up mountains. Under the ocean basins, molten rock may well up between separating plates to create new ocean floor. Volcanic activity along the ocean floor may form undersea mountains, which can thrust above the ocean's surface to become islands. 4C/H5
- The earth's plates sit on a dense, hot, somewhat melted layer of the earth. The plates move very slowly, pressing against one another in some places and pulling apart in other places, sometimes scraping alongside each other as they do. Mountains form as two continental plates, or an ocean plate and a continental plate, press together. 4C/M12 (BSL)
- There are worldwide patterns to major geological events (such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building) that coincide with plate boundaries. 4C/M13 (BSL)
National Science Education Standards
Earth and Space Science- Content Standard D
ENERGY IN THE EARTH SYSTEM
Earth systems have internal and external sources of energy, both of which create heat. The sun is the major external source of energy. Two primary sources of internal energy are the decay of radioactive isotopes and the gravitational energy from the earth's original formation.
The outward transfer of earth's internal heat drives convection circulation in the mantle that propels the plates comprising earth's surface across the face of the globe.
THE ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF THE EARTH SYSTEM
Interactions among the solid earth, the oceans, the atmosphere, and organisms have resulted in the ongoing evolution of the earth system. We can observe some changes such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions on a human time scale, but many processes such as mountain building and plate movements take place over hundreds of millions of years.
Source: Hawai'i Space Grant Consortium